Growth hormone is produced by the pituitary gland — a pea-sized structure at the base of the brain — to fuel childhood growth and help maintain tissues and organs throughout life. Beginning in middle age, however, the pituitary gland slowly reduces the amount of growth hormone it produces. This natural slowdown has prompted an interest in the use of synthetic human growth hormone (HGH) to stave off the realities of old age.
What can human growth hormone do for otherwise healthy adults?
Studies of healthy adults taking human growth hormone are limited. Although it appears that human growth hormone injections can increase muscle mass and reduce the amount of body fat in healthy older adults, the increase in muscle doesn't translate into increased strength. It isn't clear if human growth hormone may provide other benefits to healthy adults.
What are the risks of taking human growth hormone if you don't need it?
Human growth hormone may cause a number of side effects for healthy adults, including:
- Carpal tunnel syndrome
- Swelling in the arms and legs
- Joint pain
- Muscle pain
- For men, enlargement of breast tissue (gynecomastia)
Human growth hormone may also contribute to conditions such as diabetes and heart disease.
Some research suggests that side effects of human growth hormone treatments may be more likely in older adults than in younger adults. Because the studies of healthy adults taking human growth hormone have been short term, it isn't clear whether the side effects could eventually dissipate or become worse.
Does human growth hormone come in pill form?
Some websites sell a pill form of human growth hormone and claim that it produces results similar to the injected form of the drug. Sometimes these dietary supplements are called human growth hormone releasers. There's no proof that these claims are true. Likewise, there's no proof that homeopathic remedies claiming to contain human growth hormone work.
What's the bottom line?
If you have specific concerns about aging, ask your doctor about proven ways to improve your health. Remember, healthy lifestyle choices — such as eating a healthy diet and including physical activity in your daily routine — can help you feel your best as you get older.